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Root canal treatment is a non-surgical procedure that eliminates the infected pulp tissue.Pulp tissue is extirpated(removed), the canal is prepared and isolated from saliva.The root canal treatment removes the etiological factors leading to abscess and allows bone and tissue around the tooth to regenerate.The root canal treatment usually requires anesthesia in order to reduce the discomfort of the procedure and may result in one or more visits depending on the complexity of the necessary treatment.

Sequence of the treatment

Step one:

The tooth is tested and a local anesthetic is administrated.After the tooth is painless, a rubber dam is placed(rubber dam is made of latex and isolates and protects the teeth from saliva during the entire process).

Step two:

Access to the root canal is made through the tooth crown, and with small instruments ( hand or machine)the canals are prepared and an appropriate form is created.

Third step:

After preparation, the canals are filled with a biocompatible material (gutta-percha and sealer).Several filling techniques exist - central cone, lateral condensation, vertical condensation( hot condensation). The vertical condensation provides not only the obturation of the main canal, but all of the lateral canals, which can not be filled by the other methods.

Step Four:

The a crown is made or other obturation to protect the tooth and restore its functions.


The cost of the procedure varies by factors such as the number of canals in the tooth:
Maxillary teeth (front teeth,upper jaw) - 1 root and 1 canal
Upper first premolar:2 roots, 2 canals
Upper second premolars: 1-2 roots, 1-2 canals
Upper molars -3 roots,3-4 canals
Mandibular teeth( Lower front teeth)- 1 root ,1-2 canals
Lower premolars -1 root, 1-2 canals
Lower molars- 2 roots , 3-4 canals


Studies show that treatment success is usually 90% .Althought great success rate, improper preparation and filling of the root canals, missed canals, cracks or fractures can lead to reinfection and failure of the treatment .The existing options are a retreatment or surgical procedure.  Are there any options other than a root canal treatment?  Unfortunately, the only alternative is extraction.The tooth loss can cause aesthetic problems or chewing problems.